There has been a significant shift in the lifestyle and usage of daily amenities by households in Nepal in the last 10 years. An increasing number of Nepali households are now using liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as a primary fuel source for cooking, and there has been a marked rise in the number of Nepalis owning televisions, laptops/computers, mobile phones, cars, and motorcycles.
According to the National Census 2021, which was made public on Friday, traditional fuels like firewood and cow dung are still in use, but there has been a noticeable increase in the adoption of LPG and electricity.
The Census 2021 reveals that the percentage of households using LPG as their primary source of cooking fuel has increased from 21.03 percent in 2011 to 44.3 percent in 2021. In 2011, firewood was the most commonly used fuel source for cooking in Nepali households, with 64 percent of households relying on it. However, this figure has dropped to 51 percent in 2021, indicating a shift towards cleaner and more sustainable fuel alternatives.
The Census 2021 indicates a significant decrease in the use of kerosene as a primary source of cooking fuel, from 1.03 percent of households in 2011 to just 0.05 percent in 2021. In 2011, biogas was used by 2.43 percent of households, but this percentage dropped to 1.2 percent in 2021. Similarly, the use of cow-dung as a primary fuel source for cooking decreased from 10.38 percent of households in 2011 to just 2.9 percent in 2021.
Although the Census reports a significant increase in the adoption of cleaner fuel alternatives, the use of electricity as a primary cooking fuel remains low, with only 0.5 percent of households using it in 2021.
The Census 2021 also shed light on interesting facts about the usage of amenities in Nepali homes. According to the census, Nepalis are increasingly opting for smartphones over basic mobile phones, with the ownership of the former surpassing the latter. Additionally, more Nepalis are investing in televisions, while radio ownership is declining.
Thanks to the expansion of telecom infrastructure, mobile telephony has replaced basic telephony, leading to a surge in mobile handset ownership and internet subscribership over the last decade.
As per the Census, the percentage of households with ordinary mobile phones has increased to 73.15 percent in 2021, up from 64.63 percent in 2011. Furthermore, 37.72 percent of households now have internet facilities, compared to just 3.33 percent in 2011. The percentage of households with computers or laptops has also seen an increase from 7.28 percent in 2011 to 15 percent in 2021.
In terms of appliances, the percentage of households with televisions has risen from 36.45 percent in 2011 to 49.37 percent in 2021. Refrigerator ownership has also seen a significant increase, with the percentage of households owning one jumping from 7.16 percent in 2011 to 23.7 percent in 2021.
The Census also reveals a significant increase in motorcycle ownership as a means of transport in the country. The percentage of households with bicycles has increased from 32.38 percent in 2011 to 35.21 percent in 2021. Meanwhile, motorcycle ownership has seen a tremendous increase, rising from 9.58 percent in 2011 to 27.3 percent in 2021. The percentage of households with cars, jeeps, or vans has also gone up from 1.57 percent in 2011 to 3.1 percent in 2021.
An increasing number of Nepali households now have access to tap or piped water facilities, which is a positive development toward ensuring safe and clean drinking water for all.
According to the census data, the percentage of households with access to tap or piped water facilities has increased from 47.78 percent in 2011 to 57 percent in 2021.
In contrast, the percentage of households relying on wells or hand pumps for their drinking water has decreased from 35.1 percent in 2011 to 29.8 percent in 2021.
The Census 2021 also revealed that access to electricity in Nepal has significantly improved over the last decade, thanks to the completion of more hydropower projects. The data shows that the percentage of households using electricity as their primary source of lighting has jumped from 67.3 percent in 2011 to an impressive 92.2 percent in 2021.
As the access to electricity has increased, the use of kerosene as a source of lighting has witnessed a sharp decline. In 2011, 18.3 percent of households relied on kerosene as their primary lighting source, while in 2021, only 0.6 percent of households used this method.
The census also revealed that the use of solar energy as the primary lighting source has decreased slightly, from 7.44 percent in 2011 to 6.6 percent in 2021. These figures indicate a significant improvement in access to electricity across the country, particularly in rural areas.
The census provides important data on the country’s labor force, showing that a significant portion of the population is engaged in economic activities. Of the total population of 23,958,868 aged 10 years or above, 15,689,777 persons (65.5 percent) are economically active, while 8,211,012 persons (34.3 percent) are not economically active.
According to the census data, 9.4 percent of households in the country are involved in operating small-scale enterprises other than agriculture. Among these households, the majority operate trade/business (49.5 percent), followed by cottage industry (21.9 percent), service-related businesses (11 percent), transportation businesses (5.5 percent), and other types of small-scale enterprises (12 percent).
Of the total population of 23,958,868 aged 10 years or above, 15,689,777 persons (65.5 percent) are economically active, while 8,211,012 persons (34.3 percent) are not economically active.
Of the total economically active population of 15,689,777 persons aged 10 years or above, 11,038,105 persons (70.35 percent) are usually economically active, while 4,651,672 persons (29.65 percent) are not usually economically active.
Of the total usually economically active population of 11,038,105, a majority of 10,270,447 persons (93.05 percent) are usually employed, while the remaining 767,658 persons (6.95 percent) are usually unemployed.
Among the total population engaged in any economic activity, the majority (50.1 percent) are skilled workers in agriculture, forestry, and fishery, followed by elementary workers (23.0 percent), service and sales workers (5.8 percent), crafts and trade workers (5.6 percent), managers (5.1 percent), professionals (3.8 percent), plant and machine operators (2.7 percent), technician and associate professionals (1.9 percent), office assistants (1.3 percent), and armed forces (0.7 percent).
According to the census, the majority of economically active individuals in Nepal are engaged in the agriculture industry, accounting for 57.3 percent. Among those engaged in any economic activity, the top five industries are agriculture, forestry, and fishing at 57.3 percent, followed by wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles at 12.5 percent, construction at 8.1 percent, other service activities at 3.9 percent, and manufacturing at 3.8 percent.
The number of households owning four-wheelers (jeep/car/van) has increased in the last 10 years. As of 2021, there are 204990 households in the country that own a jeep/car/van, up from 85,135 households in 2011. The number of households owning motorcycles increased to 1816121 in 2021 from 519570 households in 2011. Similarly, the number of households owning television increased to 3291185 in 2021 from 1976603 households in 2011.
|Source of Fuel for Cooking
Households using firewood as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 64 percent
2021 51 percent
Households using LPG as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 21.03 percent
2021 44.3 percent
Households using kerosene as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 1.03 percent
2021 0.05 percent
Households using biogas as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 2.43 percent
2021 1.2 percent
Households using electricity as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 0.08 percent
2021 0.5 percent
Households using cow-dung as main source of fuel for cooking
2011 10.38 percent
2021 2.9 percent
|Source of Lighting
Households using electricity as the main source of lighting
2011 67.3 percent
2021 92.2 percent
Households using kerosene as the main source of lighting
2011 18.3 percent
2021 0.6 percent
Households using solar as the main source of lighting
2011 7.44 percent
2021 6.6 percent
Households having ordinary mobile phones
2011 64.63 percent
2021 73.15 percent
Households having television
2011 36.45 percent
2021 49.37 percent
Households having internet facility
2011 3.33 percent
2021 37.72 percent
Households having refrigerator
2011 7.16 percent
2021 23.7 percent
Households having computer/laptop
2011 7.28 percent
2021 15 percent
Households having bicycle
2011 32.38 percent
2021 35.21 percent
Households having motorcycle
2011 9.58 percent
2021 27.3 percent
Households having car/jeep/van
2011 1.57 percent
2021 3.1 percent
Households residing in their own housing units
2011 85.3 percent
2021 86 percent
Households residing in rented housing units
2011 12.8 percent
2021 12.8 percent
|Source of Drinking Water
Household having tap/piped water facility
2011 47.78 percent
2021 57 percent
Households having well/hand pump
2011 35.1 percent
2021 29.8 percent
Economically Active Population
|Economically Active 65.5 percent
Not Economically Active 34.3 percent
|Usually Economically Active 70.35 percent
Not Usually Economically Active 29.65 percent
|Usually Employed 93.05 percent
Usually Unemployed 6.95 percent
Economically active by occupation
|Occupation Economically Active
Skilled Workers in Agriculture, Forestry & Fishery 50.1 percent
Elementary Workers 23 percent
Service & Sales Workers 5.8 percent
Craft & Trade Workers 5.6 percent
Managers 5.1 percent
Professionals 3.8 percent
Plant and Machine Operators 2.7 percent
Technicians 1.9 percent
Office Assistants 1.3 percent
Armed Forces 0.7 percent
Economically active by main industry
|Agriculture, forestry, and fishing||57.3 percent|
|Wholesale & retail trade||12.5 percent|
|Other Service Activities||3.9 percent|
Households having car/jeep/van (Province-wise)
Sudur Paschim 6542
Households having motorcycle (Province-wise)
Sudur Paschim 89907
Households having televisions (Province-wise)